Cerca de 11 milhões de pessoas vivem ilegalmente nos Estados Unidos.

A ordem de execução, assinada nessa quarta-feira (25) pelo presidente norte-americano, Donald Trump, para a conclusão de um muro que separe completamente a fronteira dos Estados Unidos (EUA) e do México repercutiu no mundo inteiro.  Aproximadamente 11 milhões de pessoas de diferentes nacionalidades moram no país sem permissão legal.

Maioria entra com visto

Apesar da emblemática e famosa travessia terrestre pela fronteira entre os Estados Unidos e o México, mais da metade dos imigrantes sem documentação que vivem nos Estados Unidos entram por via aérea, geralmente com visto de turista. Depois de vencer o prazo de permanência no país, eles não retornam ao país de origem.

A estimativa do governo norte-americano é de que dos 11 milhões de pessoas sem documentação, pelo menos 6 milhões cheguem com visto pelos aeroportos. Nessa categoria se enquadra a maioria dos brasileiros que vivem nos EUA sem visto de permanência. Entram com visto de turista e não regressam dentro do prazo estipulado (em geral, seis meses).

Muro

O muro fronteiriço começou a ser construído entre os dois países desde 1994, sendo que atualmente já estão prontos 1.050 quilômetros. O projeto de Donald Trump prevê a construção de uma parte horizontal e outra feita por meios de valas. O custo total da obra será de US$ 8 milhões.

O muro do México deverá ter cerca de 1,6 mil quilômetros de comprimento. A fronteira tem, ao todo, 3,2 mil quilômetros, mas além da parte já construída (que será remodelada), existem barreiras naturais.

De acordo com a Organização Internacional para as Migrações (OIM), cerca de 6% dos imigrantes no mundo passam pela fronteira dos Estados Unidos com o México.

O governo mexicano estima que cerca de 160 mil pessoas atravessem a fronteira terrestre entre os dois países a cada ano. Mas a maioria dos que cruzam a fronteira não são de nacionalidade mexicana.

O corredor México-Estados Unidos é usado por pessoas que tentam imigrar de vários países, da América Central e também de pessoas de outros continentes que chegam legalmente ao México.

Depois dos atentados nas torres gêmeas em Nova York, em 2001, a fiscalização aumentou muito na região, mas ainda há pessoas que conseguem atravessar. A travessia é extremamente perigosa e cara. Os coiotes trabalham em conjunto com os cartéis do tráfico de drogas.

A Agência Brasil apurou, com a comunidade de imigrantes sem documentação que vivem em Atlanta, que o custo médio cobrado pela travessia varia, mas um imigrante pode pagar entre US$ 6 mil e US$ 10 mil para ser “guiado” entre a fronteira pelos coiotes.

Mortes e desaparecimentos

A área fronteiriça sobre influência de carteis de drogas também é cenário para outros crimes como abuso sexual, homicídios, sequestro e tráfico de pessoas. O número de pessoas que morrem na travessia é alta.

A cifra, no entanto, pode ser maior porque não há controle de quem passa, uma vez que a maioria busca rotas controladas por narcotraficantes. A maioria dos casos é registrada como desaparecimento. Foram 2.400 no ano passado. Estima-se que entre 60 e 80 pessoas morram por mês, na tentativa de atravessar a fronteira.

Em novembro do ano passado, o brasileiro Jefferson de Oliveira morreu quando tentava chegar aos EUA pelo México. Aos 20 anos, o mineiro deixou o país para viver e trabalhar nos Estados Unidos. O corpo dele foi encontrado perto do Rio Bravo, na fronteira.

Crianças na fronteira

Há inúmeros casos de crianças desacompanhadas na fronteira entre os Estados Unidos e o México, sobretudo na parte do Texas, segundo a patrulha norte-americana. Em 2016, foram detidos mais de 54 mil menores sozinhos e mais de 68 mil famílias na região.

Entre as crianças “solitárias”, há uma parcela que é nascida nos Estados Unidos e que viaja para o México a fim de visitar familiares que foram deportados ou mesmo para levar malas ao país. Também há registro de crianças perdidas que não conseguem concluir a viagem e nem regressar ou reencontrar os familiares.

As crianças na fronteira também são suscetíveis ao recrutamento pelos carteis de drogas e à exploração sexual.( Agência Brasil)

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